哥本哈根氣候會議上,一個名為「農民之路」的組織的發言。

本文由謝洵怡翻譯,蘇毓婷校稿,發表在氣候正義部落格
http://climatejustice2009.blogspot.com/

原文請見農民之路網站
http://www.viacampesina.org/main_en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=833&Itemid=1

Farmers movement mobilize in Copenhagen 行動呼籲

http://www.viacampesina.org/main_en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=832&Itemid=1

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20091207
農民之路主席亨利.薩拉吉在 Klimafroum 開幕式的演說。

今晚是一個非常特殊的夜晚,我們在此為了社會運動和公民社會在Klimaforum大會的開幕而聚集。我們國際農民運動「農民之路」的朋友,從世界各個角落而來,我們離開我們的農田、我們的牲畜、我們的森林、還有我們農村裏的家庭,來這裏與大家共聚一堂。

什麼重要的事情讓我們跑到這麼遠的地方?有幾個原因。首先,我們想告訴你,氣候變化已經嚴重影響我們。它帶來洪水,乾旱和病蟲害的爆發,造成歉收。我必須 指出,這些歉收並不是農民造成。相反的,它是排放溫室氣體的污染者破壞自然迴圈所造成的。因此,我們小農戶來這裏所要表達的,不是要替他們的錯誤付帳,而 是要求排放者面對自己的責任。

第二,我想與你們分享一些關於哪些農業活動造成溫室氣體排放的事實。新的資料已經清楚表明,工業化農業以及全球化的糧食體系必須為4457的全球溫室氣體排放負責。這項數位可細分如下:

(一)農業活動要擔負1115%,
(二)開墾土地和砍伐森林導致額外的1518%,
(三)食品加工,包裝和運輸造成1520
(四)分解有機廢物造成另外34%。

這意味著,我們目前的糧食體系是一個重大的污染。我們必須思考的問題是:當農業部門本身的製造超過了一半的溫室氣體總排放量時,我們如何解決氣候混亂、饑荒並確保更好的農民生計?

們認為,工業化和農企業 (agri-business) 的農業模式才是問題的根源,我剛才提到的這些因砍伐森林、將天然林轉換成單一植林的排放百分比,都是農企業的運作所產生,而不是家 庭農場。而農業的大量甲烷排放,也是因為世界銀行所支持的 「綠色革命」,鼓勵使用尿素作為化學肥料而造成。同時,自由貿易協定(FTA)和世界貿易組織 WTO)推動的農業貿易自由化,更助長糧食在全球加工和運輸過程中的溫室氣體排放。

如果我們真正想對抗氣候危機,我們的唯 一要務就是制止工業化農業。農企業不僅促成氣候危機,它也殘害世界小農。全世界有數以百萬計的男性和女性農民,從他們的土地上被驅離;另外每年還有數百萬 人,在非洲、亞洲和拉丁美洲的土地衝突中遭受暴力威脅。世界上十多億饑餓的人群中,小農和無地的農民占絕大多數。另一方面,由於自由貿易,南亞許多小農戶 自殺。因此,制止工業化農業,是我們唯一可以走的路。

目前這個倚賴碳交易機制的氣候談判,會帶來氣候變遷的解決方案嗎?我們認為,碳交易機制,只為製造污染的國家和公司謀利益,並帶給發展中國家小農戶和土著人民更多災難。在 REDD (減少由於森林砍伐和退化的排放, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation)的倡議,已經將許多原住民和小農戶驅離自己的土地。越來越多的農地轉變為植樹造林,以吸引碳排放的信用額度。

2007 年在巴里島的締約國第十三次會議,農民之路就已提出無地農民和小農民解決氣候變化的方案,那就是「永續的小規模農戶可替地球降溫」。今天在締約國第十五次會議,我們再次提出這項建議,並以資料證明它可減少一半以上的全球溫室氣體排放。這一資料來自:

(一)恢復、調解土壤的有機質,可以減少2035%排放量。
(二)改變工廠的集中肉類生產及重整牲畜和農作物生產,可以減少59%的排放量。
(三)讓糧食體系回到以當地市場和生鮮食品為主,將進一步減少1012%的排放量。
(四)停止開墾土地和砍伐森林將減少1518%的排放量。總之,讓農業脫離大型農企業的掌握,並且放回小農的手中,這樣就可以減少一半的全球排放溫室氣體。這是我們提出的方案,我們稱之為糧食主權

要做到這一點,我們需要社會運動一同努力,共同奮鬥,結束目前在氣候談判桌上錯誤的解決方案。這是必須的,否則我們將面對一個更大的世界性悲劇。作為社會運動,我們必須把自己的議程帶到談判桌上,因為我們是第一批氣候難民與受害者,因此,氣候正義在我們手中。

1996年世界糧農組織(FAO)糧食高峰會議,各國政府承諾在2015年以前減少一半饑餓人口。但現實情況是,饑餓人口在最近急劇地增加。我們不希望同樣的事情發生的氣候談判-無論各國政府在氣候變化框架公約內談什麼,最後還是只看到排放量的增加。

我們邀請所有的社會運動都在哥本哈根聯合起來,將氣候正義帶到談判桌上。只有透過團結和社會正義,才能實現氣候正義。

哥本哈根 2009127

Why we left our farms to come to Copenhagen

Tuesday, 08 December 2009
Speech of Henry Saragih, general coordinator of Via Campesina at the opening session of Klimaforum Tonight is a very special night for us to get together here for the opening of the assembly of the social movements and civil society at the Klimaforum. We, the international peasant movement La Via Campesina, are coming to Copenhagen from all five corners of the world, leaving our farmland, our animals, our forest, and also our families in the hamlets and villages to join you all.
Why is it so important for us to come this far? There are a number of reasons for that. Firstly, we would like to tell you that climate change is already seriously impacting us. It brings floods, droughts and the outbreak of pests that are all causing harvest failures. I must point out that
these harvest failures are something that the farmers did not create. Instead, it is the polluters who caused the emissions who destroy the natural cycles. So, we small scale farmers came here to say that we will not pay for their mistakes. And we are asking the emitters to face up to their responsibilities.

Secondly, I would like to share with you some facts about who the emitters of green house gases in agriculture really are: new data that has come out clearly shows that industrial agriculture and the globalized food system are responsible of between 44 and 57% of total global greenhouse gas emissions. This figure can be broken down as follows (i) Agricultural activities are responsible for 11 to 15%, (ii) Land clearing and deforestation cause an additional 15 to 18%, (iii) Food processing, packing and transportation cause 15 to 20%, and (iv) Decomposition of organic waste causes another 3 to 4%. It means that our current food system is a major polluter.
The question we have to answer now is: how do we solve the climate chaos, hunger and assure a better livelihood for farmers, when the agricultural sector itself is contributing more than half of the total emissions? We believe that it is the industrial and agribusiness model of agriculture that is at the root of the problem, because those percentages that I mentioned earlier come from the deforestation and the conversion of natural forests into monoculture plantations, all of which is being carried out by Agribusiness Corporations. Not by family farmers.
Such large emissions of methane by agriculture are also due to the use of urea as a petrochemical fertilizer through the “green revolution”, very much supported by the World Bank. At the same time, agricultural trade liberalization promoted by free trade agreements (FTA) and by the World Trade Organization (WTO) is contributing to the greenhouse gases emissions due to food processing and food transportation around the world.


If we genuinely want to tackle the climate change crisis, the only way we have to go forward is to stop industrial agriculture. Agribusiness has not only highly contributed to the climate crisis, it has also massacred the small farmers of the world. Millions of farmers , men and women from around the world, have been kicked off their land. Millions of others suffer violence every year because of land conflicts in Africa, Asia and Latin America.  Small farmers and landless farmers make up the majority of the more than 1 billion hungry people in the world. And because of free trade, many small farmers commit suicide in South Asia. So putting an end to industrial agriculture is the only way we can go.


Will the current climate negotiations, that are relying on carbon trade mechanisms, bring solutions to climate change? To this we say that carbon trade mechanisms will only serve polluting countries and companies, and bring disaster to small farmers and indigenous peoples in developing countries. The REDD initiative (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) has already kicked off their land many indigenous peoples and small farmers in developing countries. And more and more agricultural land is being converted into tree plantations in order to attract carbon credits.


At COP 13 in Bali 2007, La Via Campesina proposed the landless farmers’ and small farmers’ solution to climate change, which is:
“small scale sustainable farmers are cooling down the earth”. And here, at COP 15, again we bring that proposal, backing it with the figures that prove that it could reduce more than half of the global greenhouse gas emissions. This figure comes from: (I) Recuperating organic matter in the soil would reduce emissions by 20 to 35%. (ii) Reversing the concentration of meat production in factory farms and reintegrating joint animal and crop production would reduce them by 5 to 9% (iii) Putting local markets and fresh food back at the center of the food system would reduce a further 10 to 12%. (iv) Halting land clearing and deforestation would stop 15 to 18% of emissions. In short, by taking agriculture away from the big agribusiness corporations and putting it back into the hands of small farmers, we can reduce half of the global emissions of greenhouse gases. This is what we propose, and we call it Food Sovereignty.
And to achieve that we need social movements to work together and struggle together to put an end to the current false solutions that are today on the table at the climate negotiations. This is a must, otherwise we will face an even bigger tragedy worldwide. We, as social movements, have to bring our own agenda onto the table, because we are the first climate victims and climate refugees and therefore climate justice is in our hands.


At the FAO Food Summit in 1996, governments committed themselves to reduce hunger by half by 2015. The reality is that the number of hungry people has recently increased dramatically. We do not want the same thing to happen with the climate talks and see the emissions increase even further regardless of what the governments negotiate within the UNFCCC.

We invite all the movements present in Copenhagen to join together to bring climate justice to the table. Climate justice will only be achieved through solidarity and social justice.

Copenhagen, 7th December 2009

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